Karl Marx was a German philosopher economist and father of communism, Marx was awarded his doctorate by the University of Jena in 1841. His political activities entailed a nomadic existence on the Continent of Europe until, in 1849, he settled in London where he remained for the rest of his life. The Communist Manifesto, written with his friend Engels in 1848, summarizes his social and political philosophies. After years of scholarly research, much of it in the British Museum Reading Room, the first volume of Das Kapital was published in 1867. Engels edited the further two volumes which were issued posthumously in 1885 and 1894. In this mammoth work Marx propounds his economic interpretation of history and the theory of class struggle. Capitalism is described as simply a form of social order that contains its own inherent contradictions. The labour theory of value, the exploitaition and alienation of the worker, a falling rate of profit ensure an inevitable crisis, leading to revolution and eventually to the socialist state.